ROBERT M. JULIEN, MD, PhD, is both an anesthesiologist and psychopharmacologist with over 40 years of experience. He received his PhD from the University of Washington in 1970 and his MD from the University of California at Irvine in 1977. Previously an Associate Professor of Pharmacology and Anesthesiology at the Oregon Health Sciences University, Dr. Julien lectures widely on psychopharmacology. With over 36 years of continuous publication, Dr. Julien's psychopharmacology textbook, A Primer of Drug Action (Worth Publishers), is regarded as the definitive textbook of psychopharmacology, covering both psychotherapeutic agents as well as substances of abuse. Dr. Julien is a nationally recognized speaker and expert in psychopharmacology.